first we are going to describe the central component of Health IT :
The electronic health record (EHR) : is the central component of the health IT infrastructure. An EHR or electronic medical record is an individual’s official, digital health record and is shared among multiple facilities and agencies.
for a wide variety of health care institutions to share medical data with other health care providers, with such groups as health information exchanges and regional health information organizations, and with patients themselves.
To that end, the federal government has put financial incentive programs in place that encourage hospitals and health care providers to adopt EHR technology by the end of 2014. Beyond financial incentives, however, implementation of EHR technology is seen as a way to improve clinical workflows, data analysis and overall patient care.
An electronic health record is a digital version of an individual’s medical data. It is collected and managed by multiple authorized health care providers, and can be exchanged electronically among them. It consists of information gathered by organizations over a period of time – it’s often referred to as a longitudinal record — rather than information from a single visit to a doctor or hospital. It includes demographic data, medical history and clinical information, such as laboratory, radiology and pharmacy data.